"El éxito escolar es la capacidad que el profesor manifiesta para hacer que el niño piense, crezca pensando, se desarrolle pensando y sea capaz de lograr autonomía en su pensamiento. Cuando el niño lo logra, el profesor tiene éxito".
This lesson is based on an award-winning short film by John Kelly called Procrastination which explores the universal problem of procrastination. The lesson practises listening and reading, and using the gerund. The lesson also looks at how avoiding procrastination can make you happier.
Write Procrastination on the board and ask your students if they know what it means. Give this definition:
Procrastination is avoiding doing something.
Ask students to say what Procrastination is for them using this structure:
Procrastination is checking my email account in the morning.
Put students into small groups and ask them to explain how they procrastinate.
After 5 minutes get feedback from the groups.
Tell your students they are going to watch a short film called Procrastination in which a man explains how he procrastinates. Show them this image from the film and tell them that it represents ways in which the man puts things off. Put your students in pairs and ask them to speculate about what the activities may be.
Show the film and ask students to check if any of the activities they do to put of doing something which they talked about Step 2. Also ask them to check what activities are presented by the image in Step 3.
Ask students the following questions:
What advice would you give to a person to help them procrastinate less?
Put students in pairs and give them 5 minutes to come up with their Top 7 tips for beating procrastination using should and shouldn’t.
Go can ask them to compare their tips with those in the article. Discuss the article with your students.
Explain to your students that the article comes from a website called The Happiness Project which promotes a book of the same name in which Gretchen Rubin describes the year she spent test-driving studies and theories about how to be happier. In her book and on her website she shares her insights to help people create their own happiness project. One her insights is that avoiding procrastinations helps people become happier.
Write happiness is on the board, then complete it using the gerund, for example,
Happiness is being with people I love.
Happiness is having a lie-in at the weekend.
Happiness is listening to my favourite songs.
Happiness is helping another person.
Ask your students to write 10 true sentences about what happiness is for them.
Next they should explain what makes them happy to a partner.
Give students the address of the The Happiness Project video page and ask them to watch some of the videos about how to become happier. In the following class they should report back on the videos they watched.
La enseñanza Socrática es la estrategia educativa más antigua, y aún hoy la más poderosa, para promover el Pensamiento Crítico. Con ella nos enfocamos en formular preguntas a los estudiantes en vez de darles respuestas.
Moldeamos una mente inquisitiva y exploradora mediante el sondeo continuo, a través de preguntas, sobre un tema. Por fortuna, las habilidades que se ganan al enfocarnos tanto en los elementos de razonamiento de una disciplina, como en la auto evaluación, aunadas a la relación lógica que resulta de ese pensamiento disciplinado, nos preparan para el cuestionamiento socrático.
Afortunadamente, la existencia de un conjunto predecible de relaciones tiene validez para todas las áreas y disciplinas.
Esto se da en la lógica general del razonamiento, pues cada área la han desarrollado aquellos que tienen:
• metas y objetivos compartidos (que define el enfoque del área)
• preguntas y problemas compartidos (cuyas soluciones buscan alcanzar)
• información y datos compartidos (que utilizan como bases empíricas)
• maneras compartidas de interpretar o juzgar la información
• conceptos e ideas compartidos, especializados (que usan como ayuda en la organización de los datos)
• conjeturas compartidas (que les permiten perseguir metas comunes dentro de un marco común)
Cada uno de los elementos representa una dimensión dentro de la cual se puede escarbar cuando se cuestiona a una persona. Podemos preguntar por metas y propósitos. Podemos explorar la naturaleza de la pregunta, problema o tema que se está tratando. Podemos inquirir en si tenemos o no datos e información relevantes. Podemos considerar interpretaciones alternativas de datos e información. Podemos analizar conceptos e ideas claves. Podemos cuestionar conjeturas que se han hecho. Podemos solicitar a los estudiantes que predigan las implicaciones y consecuencias de lo que están diciendo. Podemos considerar puntos de vista alternativos. Todo esto y más, constituye el corazón del interrogador Socrático.
Cómo aproximación táctica, el cuestionamiento Socrático es un proceso altamente disciplinado. El interrogador Socrático actúa como el equivalente lógico de la voz interna crítica que despliega la mente al desarrollar habilidades de pensamiento crítico. Las contribuciones de los compañeros son como otros tantos pensamientos mentales. Todos esos pensamientos se deben tratar cuidadosa y equitativamente. Haciendo seguimiento a todas las respuestas mediante más preguntas y seleccionando las preguntas que permitan avanzar en la discusión, el interrogador Socrático fuerza a la clase a pensar de manera disciplinada, intelectualmente responsable, al tiempo que continuamente ayuda a los estudiantes planteándoles preguntas facilitadoras.
El interrogador Socrático debe:
a- mantener enfocad la discusión
b- asegurar que la discusión se mantenga intelectualmente responsable
c- estimular la discusión mediante preguntas exploratorias
d- periódicamente resumir lo que se ha atendido y resuelto y lo que no
e- involucrar en la discusión la mayor cantidad posible de estudiantes
SEIS TIPOS DE PREGUNTAS SOCRÁTICAS
Debido a la rápida adición de nueva información y al avance de la ciencia y la tecnología que ocurren casi a diario, un ingeniero debe expandir permanentemente su horizonte más allá de la simple recolección de información, apoyado en los principios básicos de ingeniería.
Se han incluido un número de problemas de tareas diseñadas para incrementar habilidades de pensamiento crítico.
Pensamiento crítico es el proceso que usamos para reflexionar sobre algo, acceder y juzgar las conjeturas que subyacen en las ideas y acciones propias o de otros.
El cuestionamiento Socrático está en el meollo del pensamiento crítico y un buen número de estas tareas se apoyan en los 6 tipos de preguntas Socráticas de R.W. Paul .
1- Preguntas Conceptuales Aclaratorias
Estimule a sus estudiantes a pensar más reflexivamente respecto a qué es exactamente lo que están pensando o lo que están preguntando. A demostrar los conceptos que apoyan sus argumentos. Básicamente son preguntas que les ayudan a profundizar más.
• ¿Por qué dice usted eso?
• ¿Qué quiere decir exactamente esto?
• ¿Cómo se relaciona esto con lo que hemos venido hablando, discutiendo?
• ¿cuál es la naturaleza de.....?
• ¿Qué es lo que ya sabemos respecto a esto?
• ¿Puede darme un ejemplo?
• ¿Lo qué usted quiere decir es.....o.....?
• ¿Por favor, puede re frasear lo que dijo?
2- Preguntas para comprobar conjeturas o supuestos
Comprobar conjeturas en busca de la verdad, hace que los estudiantes piensen acerca de presuposiciones y creencias no cuestionadas en las que están basando sus argumentos. Esto les sacude las bases en las que se están apoyando y con eso se pretende que hagan avances a terreno más sólido.
• ¿Qué más podríamos asumir o suponer?
• ¿Parece que usted está asumiendo que......?
• ¿Cómo escogió esos supuestos?
• ¿Por favor explique por qué o cómo?
• ¿Cómo puede usted verificar o negar esa conjetura, ese supuesto?
• ¿Qué pasaría si...?
• ¿Usted está de acuerdo o en desacuerdo con....?
3- Preguntas que exploran razones y evidencia
Cuando los estudiantes dan a sus argumentos explicaciones razonadas, ayúdelos a profundizar en ese razonamiento en lugar de suponer que es algo que se da por sentado. Las personas con frecuencia utilizan apoyos que no han sido suficientemente pensados o soportes pobremente comprendidos para sus argumentos.
• ¿Por qué está sucediendo esto?
• ¿Cómo sabe usted esto?
• ¿Puede mostrarme?
• ¿Me puede dar un ejemplo de eso?
• ¿Cuáles son las causas para que suceda....? ¿Por qué?
• ¿Cuál es la naturaleza de esto?
• ¿Son estas razones suficientemente buenas?
• ¿Podría defenderse en un juicio?
• ¿Cómo se podría refutar?
• ¿Cómo podría yo estar seguro de lo que usted está diciendo?
• ¿Por qué está pasando ...?
• ¿Por qué? (siga preguntando)
• ¿Qué evidencia existe para apoyar lo que usted está diciendo?
• ¿En qué autoridad o experto basa su argumento?
4- Preguntas sobre puntos de vista y perspectivas
La mayoría de los argumentos se dan desde una posición o punto de vista particular. Ataque entonces la posición para mostrar a los estudiantes que existen otros puntos de vista igualmente válidos.
• ¿De qué otra manera se podría mirar o enfocar esto.... parece razonable?
• ¿De qué otras maneras alternativas se puede mirar esto?
• ¿Podría explicar por qué es esto necesario o beneficioso y a quién beneficia?
• ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre... y ...?
• ¿Cuáles son las fortalezas y debilidades de...?
• ¿Cuál es la similitud entre ... y ...?
• ¿Qué se podría decir sobre esto ...?
• ¿Qué pasa si usted compara ... y ...?
• ¿Qué contra argumentos se podrían usar para ....?
5- Preguntas para comprobar implicaciones y consecuencias
Los argumentos que dan los estudiantes pueden tener implicaciones lógicas que se pueden pronosticar o predecir. ¿Hacen sentido? ¿Son deseables?
• ¿Y entonces qué pasaría?
• ¿cuáles son las consecuencias de esa suposición o conjetura?
• ¿Cómo puede ... usarse para ...?
• ¿Cuáles son las implicaciones de ...?
• ¿De qué manera ... afecta ...?
• ¿En qué forma ... se conecta con lo que aprendimos antes?
• ¿Por qué ... es importante?
• ¿Qué está insinuando usted?
• ¿Por qué es el mejor ...? ¿Por qué?
• ¿Qué generalizaciones puede usted hacer?
6- Preguntas sobre las preguntas
También puede usted volverse reflexivo sobre todo el tema, volteando las preguntas hacia las preguntas mismas. Usando las preguntas formuladas por los estudiantes en contra de ellos mismos. Devuélvales el balón a su propia cancha.
• ¿Cuál era el punto de formular esta pregunta?
• ¿Por qué cree usted que formulé esa pregunta?
• ¿Qué quiere decir eso?
• ¿Cómo aplica ... en la vida diaria?
NOTAS DEL EDITOR:
 RW Paul, Critical Thinking (Santa Rosa, California: Foundation for Critical Thinking, 1992 (six types of Socratic
La traducción al español, así como la composición de este documento fueron realizadas por EDUTEKA, en base a los
siguientes artículos originales:
• Enseñanza Socrática (Socratic Teaching); Paul, R. and Elder, L., abril de 1997. Fundación para el Pensamiento
This lesson is based on a short film The Holstee Manifesto: Lifecycle Video by Cooper Miller which is a call to action to live a life of creativity, passion, integrity and community. The film was commissioned by Hostee a design company founded on ethical principles. The lesson practises the imperative form, inspiring vocabulary, listening, reading and speaking.
Write manifesto on the board, and ask your students what it means. After students have given their definitions give them this dictionary definition:
a written public statement declaring the intentions, motives, or views of a government, group or individual
Ask your students if they can give any examples of manifestos.
Tell your students they are going to watch a short film which explains a manifesto.
Pre-teach the following vocabulary:
to quit, to seize, to hug, to share, a bite
Ask students to answer the following questions:
What is the manifesto?
What values are mentioned in the manifesto?
Who wrote this manifesto?
After watching ask students to compare their answers in pairs and then get feedback from the whole class
Tell your students that they are now going to listen and read the manifesto using a kinetic typography video, and they should check anything they didn’t understand while watching the film.
Ask your students the following questions:
What do you think of the manifesto?
What do you identify with personally?
What do you like about the manifesto?
Is there anything you don’t like?
Is it a good guide for life?
Is it too simplistic?
Now show this image of the manifesto and ask students to read it.
Explain to your students that this is The Holstee Manifesto written by Mike, Fabian and Dave when they set up Holstee an ethical design and clothing company. They sat down on the steps of Union Square in New York and wrote down exactly what they wanted from life and how to create a company that breathed that passion into the world everyday. The result became known as The Holstee Manifesto and has since been shared over 500,000 times and viewed over 60 million times online. The words of the manifesto resonate with many people throughout the world as a call to action to live a life full of creativity, passion and integrity.
Tell your students you would like them to write their own manifestos to promote passionate, creative living. Put them into small groups, and tell them to use The Holstee Manifesto as a model. They should use the imperative form and inspiring vocabulary and expressions. Give them 10 minutes to create drafts of their manifesto. After 10 minutes ask a spokesperson from each group to read out their manifesto. Ask students to comment on the manifestos.
Ask students to write their own personal manifesto which should be a call to action to live a life of creativity, passion, integrity and community. Tell them they can use different colours and images in their manifestos.
How Not to Talk to Your Kids The inverse power of praise.
29 Comments Add Yours By Po Bronson Published Feb 11, 2007
(Photo: Phillip Toledano; styling by Marie Blomquist for I Group; prop styling by Anne Koch; hair by Kristan Serafino for L'Oreal Professionnel; makeup by Viktorija Bowers for City Artists; clothing by Petit Bateau [shirt and pants]) What do we make of a boy like Thomas?
Thomas (his middle name) is a fifth-grader at the highly competitive P.S. 334, the Anderson School on West 84th. Slim as they get, Thomas recently had his long sandy-blond hair cut short to look like the new James Bond (he took a photo of Daniel Craig to the barber). Unlike Bond, he prefers a uniform of cargo pants and a T-shirt emblazoned with a photo of one of his heroes: Frank Zappa. Thomas hangs out with five friends from the Anderson School. They are “the smart kids.” Thomas’s one of them, and he likes belonging.
Since Thomas could walk, he has heard constantly that he’s smart. Not just from his parents but from any adult who has come in contact with this precocious child. When he applied to Anderson for kindergarten, his intelligence was statistically confirmed. The school is reserved for the top one percent of all applicants, and an IQ test is required. Thomas didn’t just score in the top one percent. He scored in the top one percent of the top one percent.
But as Thomas has progressed through school, this self-awareness that he’s smart hasn’t always translated into fearless confidence when attacking his schoolwork. In fact, Thomas’s father noticed just the opposite. “Thomas didn’t want to try things he wouldn’t be successful at,” his father says. “Some things came very quickly to him, but when they didn’t, he gave up almost immediately, concluding, ‘I’m not good at this.’ ” With no more than a glance, Thomas was dividing the world into two—things he was naturally good at and things he wasn’t.
For instance, in the early grades, Thomas wasn’t very good at spelling, so he simply demurred from spelling out loud. When Thomas took his first look at fractions, he balked. The biggest hurdle came in third grade. He was supposed to learn cursive penmanship, but he wouldn’t even try for weeks. By then, his teacher was demanding homework be completed in cursive. Rather than play catch-up on his penmanship, Thomas refused outright. Thomas’s father tried to reason with him. “Look, just because you’re smart doesn’t mean you don’t have to put out some effort.” (Eventually, he mastered cursive, but not without a lot of cajoling from his father.)
Why does this child, who is measurably at the very top of the charts, lack confidence about his ability to tackle routine school challenges?
Thomas is not alone. For a few decades, it’s been noted that a large percentage of all gifted students (those who score in the top 10 percent on aptitude tests) severely underestimate their own abilities. Those afflicted with this lack of perceived competence adopt lower standards for success and expect less of themselves. They underrate the importance of effort, and they overrate how much help they need from a parent.
When parents praise their children’s intelligence, they believe they are providing the solution to this problem. According to a survey conducted by Columbia University, 85 percent of American parents think it’s important to tell their kids that they’re smart. In and around the New York area, according to my own (admittedly nonscientific) poll, the number is more like 100 percent. Everyone does it, habitually. The constant praise is meant to be an angel on the shoulder, ensuring that children do not sell their talents short.
But a growing body of research—and a new study from the trenches of the New York public-school system—strongly suggests it might be the other way around. Giving kids the label of “smart” does not prevent them from underperforming. It might actually be causing it.
For the past ten years, psychologist Carol Dweck and her team at Columbia (she’s now at Stanford) studied the effect of praise on students in a dozen New York schools. Her seminal work—a series of experiments on 400 fifth-graders—paints the picture most clearly.
Dweck sent four female research assistants into New York fifth-grade classrooms. The researchers would take a single child out of the classroom for a nonverbal IQ test consisting of a series of puzzles—puzzles easy enough that all the children would do fairly well. Once the child finished the test, the researchers told each student his score, then gave him a single line of praise. Randomly divided into groups, some were praised for their intelligence. They were told, “You must be smart at this.” Other students were praised for their effort: “You must have worked really hard.”
Why just a single line of praise? “We wanted to see how sensitive children were,” Dweck explained. “We had a hunch that one line might be enough to see an effect.”
Then the students were given a choice of test for the second round. One choice was a test that would be more difficult than the first, but the researchers told the kids that they’d learn a lot from attempting the puzzles. The other choice, Dweck’s team explained, was an easy test, just like the first. Of those praised for their effort, 90 percent chose the harder set of puzzles. Of those praised for their intelligence, a majority chose the easy test. The “smart” kids took the cop-out.
“Ewan McIntosh gave the best talk so far” Damien Mulley
November 29, 2011
Guy Claxton: What's the point of school?
For the past year I've been pushing educators we've been working with on The Design Thinking School to get a copy of Prof Guy Claxton's book, What's The Point of School. If ever you've wondered what about the rationale behind the way we currently do things, and what might be a suitable response to the objections of what's being proposed by people like us, then this is a good place to start.
I've summed up the key points for me, along with some of my own commentary, in this post.
In the book, he summarises a literature review that looked at, what he terms, The magnificent eight qualities of powerful learners:
Powerful learners are curious
Confident learners have courage
Powerful learners are good at exploration and investigation
Powerful learning requires experimentation
Powerful learners have imagination
The creativity of imagination needs to be yoked to reason and discipline, the ability to think carefully, rigourously, and methodically. to analyse and evaluate as well as take the creative leap.
Powerful learners have the virtue of sociability and sharing.
Powerful learners are reflective: what assumptions have we made? how are we going about this? They don't consider themselves with a fixed mindset, as 'good' or 'average'.
From this, he has also summed up what the research tells us about the reasons we want to learn:
Responsibility for learning
Respect for their views on their education, being taken seriously
Real things to explore, not pseudo contexts
Choice in what, when, where and how they are learning
Challenge of getting their teeth into something difficult, but not demoralising, and experience the satisfaction of making genuine progress.
Collaboration so that thinking and struggling happens with others in the same boat.
If the only thing we asked teachers to do was to balance their planning, teaching and student learning success against these "three Rs and three Cs", then we'd be doing well each and every day, no questions asked.
Of course, there are always detractors of anything that challenges the status quo of "the curriculum says this", "the exams require that". To this, Claxton retorts: how many of the status quo assumptions have actually been tested against research, and how many of the detractors have themselves read the research if it even exists?
To this point: Research shows that old-fashioned teaching of grammar has been ineffective even in terms of developing pupils' practice literacy. A large-scale review from the University of York in 2005 found no evidence that teaching the parts of speech, noun phrases, relative clauses and so on helped 5-16 year olds improve the quality of their writing:
"Predictably, the traditionalists retaliated to this attack on one of their most cherished beliefs by ignoring research and reiterating their articles of faith.
'Children have to learn the basics and grammar and syntax before the can develop their writing', thundered Nick Seaton, chairman of the campaign for Real Education'. 'A knowledge of grammar must always come before creativity."
And blind faith and bombast must always come before a weighing of the evidence, apparently."
(cf Richard Andrwe, Carole Torgerson, Sue Beverton, Allison Freeman, Terry Locke, Graham Low, Alison Robinson and Die Zhu, 'The effect of grammar teaching on writing development', British Educationa; Research Journal, 2006, 32 (1), pp.39-55)
Good results versus engagement
The research shows that the former is surpassed by the latter. Schools should always be about engagement first and foremost. (Chris Watkins, International School Improvement Network, 2001: learning about learning enhances performance.)
Students need to be encouraged to get into the habit of questioning those founts of "correct" knowledge: textbooks' purpose is to be used as the subject of the following questions:
How do we know this is true?
Whose claim is it?
For what purpose was this knowledge generated?
What is the unacknowledged vantage point of the textbook authors?
Why are they keeping themselves so well hidden?
What do you do to show you're learning?
For 10 years I've been encouraging teachers to keep a learning log, online preferably to share their practice. It's often met with complaints of time to do this, or "who wuld be interested", but for me sharing one's learning is amongst the most important work of the teacher.
Peter Mountstephen in Bath, plays a new musical instrument - badly - at the beginning of every school year and then learns how to play it better throughout the year. Students don't just see him learn - they hear him, warts and all. Who's modelling learning about learning to our children? And what's the effect on learning when adults do, publicly, show their learning?
Public learning logs or learning leaderboards celebrate people who are at the edge of their own learning. Not comparative to others in the class, but how much they have improved on their own learning, into new, uncomfortable places.
A "Riskometer" - or Traffic light systems to let learners show how much risk they feel they are taking - allows teachers to make informed judgements about how hard a kid feels they're pushing themselves. This sort of self-benchmarked formative assessment is much more motivating than moving up and down a class list or league table. (W. Harlen and R. Deakin-Crick 'A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students' motivation for learning', Research Evidence in Education Library, EPPI Centre, Social Science Research Unit, London, 2002.)
The Could Be Curriculum
Learning about learning is a bit more fake when the teacher knew the answers all along. What about a ‘Could be’ curriculum instead of an ‘Is’ curriculum. What about thinking like scientists instead of being taught what scientists discovered?
Learning through an authentic (to the student) challenge avoids the conundrum we hear in many a classroom" “What are you learning? Page 38, sir”. WALT (What Are we Learning Today) needs to be negotiated. not decided in the lesson plan of the teacher and 'shared' at the beginning of a lesson.
Students in one classroom were noted as not putting their hands up when they were stuck or asked "does anyone have any questions?" as they felt you "had to know the answer to the question you were going to ask".
To get around this, matching the creative process of Design Thinking where learners need to start further back in a broad topic, Claxton suggests that teachers instead design "Wild Topics of 'Plores'", areas for exPLORing. This is what we do in our Design Thinking School.
The goal is to explore genuine knowledge making, not regurgitation of consumed transmission. Well designed challenges (quite tight with flexibility) increase attainment, motivation and skills of learning about learning, as well as covering the content. (Jo Bealer, Experiencing School Mathematics, OU Press, Buckingham, 1997)
Battling with duplication
When a subject justifies itself first and foremost on which learning muscles it flexes, then, if another does it better, why duplicate? (e.g. maths/science, French/English).
This excerpt reminds me what St George's School for Girls has been doing with its Curriculum Wall:
Experiment with building mental models of how someone else would have approached a problem (How would Mahatma Ghandi have approached global warming?)
I am excited to follow this blog and learn many things about it as I graduate from college and begin my teaching career. My question to you is "In your opinion, what is one thing to remember about classroom management if you don't remember anything else you are taught about it?"
Brittany has asked a great question, and I've organized the response into a three-part series.
Today's post will share guest responses from several authors of books about classroom management and other education issues.
Part Two on Friday will include answers from other educators who I know and, in most cases, with whom I have worked.
The series will wrap-up next Wednesday with one where I'll share my own advice, as well as comments left by readers.
Wow! It's difficult to identify ONE piece of classroom management advice that trumps all others, because so many of the keys to successful management overlap. But if there is ONE piece of classroom management advice that I continually give to ALL teachers, new and veteran, it is this: Always appear to be in control of yourself, whether you are feeling that way or not.
Before you can be an effective manager of others, you must possess (and display) the ability to remain in control of yourself! And the single biggest mistake that we, as teachers, repeatedly make is this: We let students know when they get to us! We let them know that we are personally offended, angry, frustrated, or just plain fed up. We reveal our "buttons," and so they push them all year long. You see, it's a powerful feeling for a student to feel as though he caused you to stop and stare at him.... Or that he caused you to speak with your teeth clenched... Or that his actions made you stare at the ceiling and take extraordinarily deep breaths... Or that the protruding vein in your neck is the product of his handiwork! Children love to feel powerful, and what better way to feel powerful than to control the emotions of an adult! That's why you simply cannot reveal any cracks in your armor.
The best classroom managers never lose their composure. They deal with students calmly and professionally. Students never succeed in pushing the buttons of these teachers, so there's never a struggle for power. The fact is that the more out of control a student becomes, the more in control you must appear. Once a student sees you sweat, the more out of control he will get! So deal with every situation - especially the nerve-racking ones - in a composed, professional manner. Easy to do? No. Effective? Always!
Like your work clothes, your teacher personality should be a professional twist on your current style. Strengths and weaknesses from your personal life will carry over to your teaching whether you want them to or not. So will personality traits. It is important to keep this in mind as you develop your teaching style, because the more natural a classroom system feels to you, the more likely you are to enforce it consistently.
The opposite is also true. If you are not a morning person, it is better to build five minutes of quiet work into your beginning-of-class routine than promise to start each day with a happy class song. If you will feel silly after a while saying, "1,2,3, all eyes on me," find a simpler way of calling your students' attention.
Your best bet as a beginning teacher is to start the year serious, mature, and focused on your subject matter. As you get to know your students, channel the parts of yourself that naturally help you teach them. Look for teacher role models who share your strengths and can help you build your style around them. Think of your teacher personality as a shift from your first-name self to your last-name self, not a complete character overhaul.
The most important classroom management strategy is the procedure of how to start class every day or period. Start right and everything else falls into place.
Classroom management consists of the practices and procedures used to manage a classroom so that instruction and learning can take place. A smooth running classroom is based on the ability of a teacher to teach procedures, such as a procedure for sharpening a pencil, asking for help, taking turns talking, heading a paper, working in groups, and dismissal. Eighty to ninety percent of what many teachers consider discipline are not discipline problems; they are the result of a classroom that is run without procedures.
The preeminent procedure found in a well-managed classroom is the appearance of a daily agenda. As soon as the student enters the classroom, there is an agenda posted with the schedule, bellwork (for them to get to work immediately) and the objective (that spells out what they will be doing).
As an example, Christina Shoemaker was on her way to teach her next class when she was stopped in the hallway by a colleague. The conversation ended up lasting about 8 minutes and when she entered her classroom late, she was greeted with a wonderful sight. The students were all at work. She asked them what they were doing and they told her they just went ahead and started class without her! They knew the start of class procedures. To see how Christina manages her classroom with procedures, go here.
Students gauge a teacher's competence by how that teacher exhibits confidence and decisiveness. To measure this, all a student has to do is ask a simple question. "Can I get a drink of water?" "Can I go to the bathroom" "Can I turn this in late?"
When a kid asks you a question like "Can I go outside the room so I can blow my nose?", or any other unnecessary question, you've got to stop and pretend to consider it for about a second and then you've got to look the student in the eye and matter-of-factly say 'No.' Then, and here's the toughest but most important part, you've got to turn ninety degrees and walk away.
I call this "The 'No' and turn," and have performed it thousands of times.
Turning and walking away seems like it would be disrespectful to the student but it is not. They asked a question and you thought about it and answered it. There's nothing else to say or do. Compare "The 'No' and turn" to "The 'No' and wait." Now the kid thinks you're waiting for him to persuade you.
It's hard to say 'No' sometimes, but it's so important that I've devised some tricks that will help you. When a student begins asking a question, you can start mentally preparing to say 'No." "Getting ready to say 'No.' Getting ready to say 'No," I'll think while the question is being asked. Then, one beat after the question is finished, 'No,' and turn.
Teacher and author Jim Burke also shared this advice:
Most classroom management problems come from kids being bored or unchallenged: interesting classes make for good classes.
Please feel free to leave a comment sharing your reactions to this question and the ideas shared here.
Thanks to Annette, Roxanne, Harry, Gary, and Jim for sharing their responses!
Consider contributing a question to be answered in a future post. You can send one to me at firstname.lastname@example.org.When you send it in, let me know if I can use your real name if it's selected or if you'd prefer remaining anonymous and have a pseudonym in mind.
Anyone whose question is selected for this weekly column can choose one free book from a selection of twelve -- including my own -- published by Eye On Education.
I'll be posting the next "question of the week" in a week-and-a-half. In the meantime, please consider sharing your key classroom management advice!
Consistía en la formulación de preguntas que invitaban a pensar , primero aparentando ignorancia y luego promoviendo el análisis . Se dice que siempre se asigna más valor a lo que uno mismo descubre.
Fueron presentadas por Socrátes y es por esto que llevan este nombre.
Las preguntas socráticas requieren escuchar muy cuidadosamente a la otra persona, lo que le ayudará a juzgar y plantear la pregunta de modo constructivo, de ayuda y de no enfrentamiento.
He aquí algunos ejemplos de estas preguntas:
¿Qué quieres decir cuando dices ______?
¿Cuál es el punto central?
¿Qué tiene _____ que ver con _____?
¿Puedes decírmelo de otra manera?
Déjame ver si entiendo: ¿quieres decir _____ o _____?
¿Cómo se relaciona esto con nuestro tema?
María, ¿puedes resumir lo que dijo Ricardo? ... Ricardo, ¿es lo que quisiste decir?
¿Puedes darme un ejemplo?
¿ _____ podría ser un ejemplo?
Preguntas que prueban asunciones o suposiciones
¿Qué estás suponiendo?
¿Qué está suponiendo Luisa?
¿Qué podríamos suponer en lugar de eso?
Me da la impresión de que das por hecho _____. ¿Te estoy entendiendo correctamente?
Todo tu razonamiento se basa en la idea de que _____. ¿Por qué lo basas en _____ en lugar de en _____?
Pareces estar dando por sentado que _____. ¿Cómo justificas el dar eso por garantizado?
¿Eso es siempre así? ¿Por qué piensas que esa suposición es válida en este caso?/li>
¿Por qué alguien habría de suponer eso?
Preguntas que prueban motivos y evidencias
¿Podrías explicarnos tus motivos?
¿Cómo se aplica eso a este caso?
¿Hay alguna razón para dudar de esa evidencia?
¿Quién está en la posición de saber si eso es verdad?
¿Qué le dirías a alguien que sostuviera que ____?
¿Puede alguien más aportar alguna evidencia que apoye ese punto de vista?
¿Qué razonamiento te ha conducido a esa conclusión?
¿Cómo podríamos cerciorarnos de que eso es cierto?
Socrates was one of the greatest educators who taught by asking questions and thus drawing out answers from his pupils ('ex duco', means to 'lead out', which is the root of 'education'). Sadly, he martyred himself by drinking hemlock rather than compromise his principles. Bold, but not a good survival strategy. But then he lived very frugally and was known for his eccentricity. One of his pupils was Plato, who wrote up much what we know of him.
Here are the six types of questions that Socrates asked his pupils. Probably often to their initial annoyance but more often to their ultimate delight. He was a man of remarkable integrity and his story makes for marvelous reading.
The overall purpose of Socratic questioning, is to challenge accuracy and completeness of thinking in a way that acts to move people towards their ultimate goal.
Conceptual clarification questions
Get them to think more about what exactly they are asking or thinking about. Prove the concepts behind their argument. Use basic 'tell me more' questions that get them to go deeper.
Why are you saying that?
What exactly does this mean?
How does this relate to what we have been talking about?
What is the nature of ...?
What do we already know about this?
Can you give me an example?
Are you saying ... or ... ?
Can you rephrase that, please?
Probing their assumptions makes them think about the presuppositions and unquestioned beliefs on which they are founding their argument. This is shaking the bedrock and should get them really going!
What else could we assume?
You seem to be assuming ... ?
How did you choose those assumptions?
Please explain why/how ... ?
How can you verify or disprove that assumption?
What would happen if ... ?
Do you agree or disagree with ... ?
Probing rationale, reasons and evidence
When they give a rationale for their arguments, dig into that reasoning rather than assuming it is a given. People often use un-thought-through or weakly-understood supports for their arguments.
Why is that happening?
How do you know this?
Show me ... ?
Can you give me an example of that?
What do you think causes ... ?
What is the nature of this?
Are these reasons good enough?
Would it stand up in court?
How might it be refuted?
How can I be sure of what you are saying?
Why is ... happening?
Why? (keep asking it -- you'll never get past a few times)
What evidence is there to support what you are saying?
On what authority are you basing your argument?
Questioning viewpoints and perspectives
Most arguments are given from a particular position. So attack the position. Show that there are other, equally valid, viewpoints.
Another way of looking at this is ..., does this seem reasonable?
What alternative ways of looking at this are there?
Why it is ... necessary?
Who benefits from this?
What is the difference between... and...?
Why is it better than ...?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of...?
How are ... and ... similar?
What would ... say about it?
What if you compared ... and ... ?
How could you look another way at this?
Probe implications and consequences
The argument that they give may have logical implications that can be forecast. Do these make sense? Are they desirable?
Then what would happen?
What are the consequences of that assumption?
How could ... be used to ... ?
What are the implications of ... ?
How does ... affect ... ?
How does ... fit with what we learned before?
Why is ... important?
What is the best ... ? Why?
Questions about the question
And you can also get reflexive about the whole thing, turning the question in on itself. Use their attack against themselves. Bounce the ball back into their court, etc.
For outer circle members the observation role is just as important as the members of the inner-circle. We must constantly be aware of how our conversation is going… and next round you will have a chance to be in the inner circle. Below is a list of possible outer circle roles and their assignments.
Reporter Takes notes and prepares a summary that discusses strengths and weakness of the dialogue
Silent Contributor What would you say if you were in the inner circle?
Referencing Text Tallyer Counts how many times each member references the text
Comment Tallyer Records how many times each person speaks
Shadower Evaluates a member of the inner circle on the following criteria. DID THE MEMBER:
• Speak loudly and clearly? • Cite reasons and evidence for our statements? • Use the text to find support? • Listen to others respectfully? • Stick with the subject? • Talk to the whole group and not as side conversation? • Paraphrase accurately? • Avoid inappropriate language? • Ask for help to clear confusion? • Support others? • Avoid hostile exchanges? • Questions in a civil manner? • Seem prepared? • Act as a positive role model?